What to Expect from Knee Replacement Surgery?

If you plan to go for knee replacement surgery, then this article is what you should be reading before going to the hospital. Objective is not to scare you before the surgery, rather prepare you, mentally and physically for this medical procedure. Read more about the full or partial knee replacement surgery that you will undergo here.

When you reach the hospital on the day of your surgery, after fulfilling all the basic things, you will be taken to the operation theater and anesthesia will be injected. For this purpose, liquid antiseptic will be given around the knee area. The placement of the knee will be at 90 degrees whereas lower portion of the leg including foot is placed on specially designed place for holding it properly during the procedure.

For managing the flow of blood from the knee, tourniquet is mainly applied in the upper part of the leg. With this proper incision is made keeping in view the required appropriate size.

Time to remove the bone surface which is damaged

The cartilage and the surface of the bone which is damaged is then removed with the help of surgical process. In order to ensure the proper cuts being made on the leg, proper guides and precision measures are taken via instruments, also the cuts made have to be align so that the new surface could easily be attached with the bone.

In the initial phase, the portion along the back, front and end of the femur bone are removed. In this context smaller portion is taken. It also puts the bone in proper shape for further implant. The amount of damage to the bone determines the portion of the bone to be removed through surgery. Along with femur bone, patella surface and top part of the tibia is also removed so as to flatten the ends of the bone.

Time to attach the implant

The process of implantation is made on the individual ends of all three bones. the implant is done to align the normal movement of the knee joint which an individual was doing before the surgery. On the top of femur, implant is made up of metal surface, whereas the one done on the surface of tibia is of two parts, whereas the one on the patella consists of durable plastic material.

There are number of designs available for the artificial knee. Some come with central stems, others with a hole so they could be fit into the bones while some other come with pegs.

Time to clear the wound

For attaining the best possible movement of the knee, sometimes surgeon adjusts the surrounding ligament of the knee. When then ligament is properly adjusted and implantation is done, stitching process of tissues is started and surgeons tend to put the tissue back to their actual position.

After the first few hours of the surgery, a tube made of plastic is used which manages the flow of liquid before it drains. The skin from their edges is then sewed and knee is finally put in a bandage which is sterilized. After this the shifting of patient to the recovery room is made.

The article is helpful for people who want to know what processes they will be undergoing during the surgery. However, some processes may vary as per the requirement of the surgery and hospital.

Why Exercise is Critical in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

Exercise is a critical component in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, especially if you are overweight. Additional pressure on your knees makes it harder for you to manage knee osteoarthritis. Low impact exercises, such as walking, swimming, and cycling, are great for building the muscles on the knee joint and improving the range of motion in this area. If exercising causes you significant discomfort, you should consider using a cane, sleeve or knee brace.

Seek the professional diagnosis and opinion of an orthopedic clinic such as Providence’s arthritis knee treatment. Various treatment options are available for the severity of the osteoarthritis present.

In the following article, William Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR,  discusses various issues regarding osteoarthritis, including the pressure obesity, has on the knee joint and its impact on the cartilage.

The Connection Between Obesity and Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a joint inflammation that results from cartilage degeneration. Degenerative joint disease is another name for osteoarthritis. It can be caused by aging, heredity, and injury from trauma or disease.

The most common symptom of osteoarthritis is pain in the affected joint(s) after repetitive use. Other osteoarthritis symptoms and signs include swollen joints, joint stiffness, joint creaking, and loss of range of motion. Read more here

Obesity is to blame for several ailments, including osteoarthritis. Obesity is the second most significant risk factor, after age, for knee osteoarthritis. When you put on too much weight, you are exerting mechanical stress on your knee joints, and the cartilage. Over time, the pressure becomes too much, and the cartilage starts wearing out. This challenge is not specific to physically inactive people. Weight lifters also suffer from osteoarthritis of the knee due to increased body weight and repeated trauma on knee joints when lifting heavyweights.

In the following article, Jessica Brown looks at the difference between osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis.

Differentiating Inflammatory Arthritis and Osteoarthritis

If you have persistent knee joint pain, arthritis in your knees could be the culprit. While many forms of arthritis exist, it’s usually fairly easy for your doctor to first determine which of the two main categories — osteoarthritis or inflammatory/autoimmune arthritis — you might have.

Those include what’s known as mechanical knee arthritis (osteoarthritis, or OA) or inflammatory/autoimmune knee arthritis, which includes a number of illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Read more here

It is easy to confuse osteoarthritis with inflammatory arthritis. Although they have similar traits, they are also distinctly different. For example, knee osteoarthritis is limited to the knee joints, while inflammatory arthritis can affect other joints in the body at once. Symptoms of inflammatory arthritis are usually symmetrical, meaning if they affect the knees, you wouldn’t complain of pain or swelling on only one knee, both knees would be affected.

In the following article, Ann Pietrangelo discusses knee injections and steps you can take to protect your knees.

How to Protect Your Knees While Undergoing Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis of the knee can affect anyone, but it usually develops in people over age 50. It’s a progressive disease, meaning it becomes more painful and difficult to move your knee over time.

Your doctor will probably prescribe oral medications and suggest lifestyle modifications before recommending knee injections. Before you turn to surgery, weigh the pros and cons of injections.

Read on to learn about the different types of knee injections and how they work, and find tips for taking care of your knees. Read more here

When receiving treatment for knee osteoarthritis, you need to take care of your knees. This is the only way the medication can be useful. For instance, if you don’t manage your weight, even if you are receiving injections directly on the knees, the impact will not be as effective if you don’t reduce the pressure your weight has on your knees. If the osteoarthritis is as a result of repetitive strain on your knees during high-impact sports activities, you need to take on other forms of exercise that are easy on the knees, such as swimming, walking or cycling.

Causes and Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

The cause of osteoarthritis of the knee varies from one person to another. However, this type of arthritis mostly affects older people who are above the age of 50 years. This is why osteoarthritis is also referred to as wear and tear arthritis. It, however, doesn’t mean that younger people are not at risk. Excessive weight, heredity, sports injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joints also cause osteoarthritis of the knees. People suffering from other illnesses, like rheumatoid arthritis, excessive growth hormones, and metabolic disorders are also at risk of developing osteoarthritis.

In the following article, the writer discusses the causes, symptoms, and treatment of osteoarthritis (knee arthritis).

The Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

While age is a major risk factor for osteoarthritis of the knee, young people can get it, too. For some individuals, it may be hereditary. For others, osteoarthritis of the knee can result from injury or infection or even from being overweight. Here are answers to your questions about knee osteoarthritis, including how it’s treated and what you can do at home to ease the pain. Read more here

When the bones of the knee joint start rubbing together due to loss of the protection provided by the cartilages, the outcome is pain, stiffness, swelling, difficulty in moving, and sometimes, bone spurs can start forming. The x-ray will not show the cartilage, but the image can show a narrowing of space between the bones closer to your joint. If you have bone spurs, the x-ray will reveal this. An MRI is not necessary to diagnose osteoarthritis, but in complex cases, the doctor may recommend it.

In the following article, the writer discusses other tests, besides the x-ray and MRI, that can be used to confirm osteoarthritis of the knees.

Lab Tests to Confirm Osteoarthritis

During the physical exam, your doctor will check your affected joint for tenderness, swelling, redness and flexibility. To get pictures of the affected joint, your doctor might recommend x-rays. Cartilage doesn’t show up on X-ray images, but cartilage loss is revealed by a narrowing of the space between the bones in your joint. Read more here

Besides asking you to have an x-ray or MRI performed, the doctor may also request for lab tests. An analysis of your blood can help to rule out other causes of the joint pain. For example, the doctor can eliminate the possibility of rheumatoid arthritis. Joint fluid analysis is done on the affected area, in this case, the knee, to check the level of inflammation, and to determine if other diseases, such as gout, is the cause.

In the following article, Ann Pietrangelo and Tim Jewell look at the various symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee, and the deformities that may arise.

Deformities Associated with Severe Osteoarthritis

There are three different types of arthritis that can occur in your knees. The most common type is osteoarthritis (OA), a progressive condition that slowly wears away joint cartilage. OA is most likely to occur after middle age. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory condition that can strike at any age.

Post-traumatic arthritis develops following an injury to the knee. It can occur years after a torn meniscus, ligament injury, or knee fracture. It’s possible to have more than one type of arthritis at a time. See your doctor for a diagnosis and to discuss a successful treatment plan for the specific type or types of arthritis you have.

Arthritis is a degenerative disease. If you don’t seek treatment, it will only get worse. The symptoms will become more severe, but things could rapidly deteriorate. As you continue to lose the cartilage around your knee joint, the muscles in this area become equally thin and weak. After some time, your knee joint will appear sunken, your knees may start pointing towards each other or even point outwards. Some knee deformities may not be visible, while others can be so severe and debilitating.

New Face Slimming Methods in Singapore

How does face slimming work?

The collagen present in the human skin is what keeps it firm and healthy. As one gets older and when the skin is constantly exposed to the sun, this collagen gradually breaks down and the skin in turn becomes saggy and gives off a fat face effect. There is also a risk of developing a lot of wrinkles on it which further makes it weaker.

The new Thermage FLX uses the radio frequency stimulator on the skin which heats up the underlying collagen in the deeper layers of the skin and modifies them to perform better. Not only this, but the procedure also boosts the growth of newer collagen that nourishes the skin. After treatment, the collagen keeps building for six months and further improves the look of the face. This face slimming procedure is available in Singapore – ask for it as beauty or aesthetic clinics.

Why is it effective?

The reason why the Thermange FLX face slimming technique is so effective is because it uses the radio frequency that penetrates the deepest layers of the skin where the collagen is present. Then it heats them up and further improves the quality of skin. Not every procedure is that efficient and the success lies in going down to the deepest layers of the skin where the collagen rich tissue is present.

Are there any risks involved?

Since the procedure is non-invasive and non-surgical there are hardly any risks involved. Before the procedure there is also the application of numbness cream which minimizes any pain effects. Since there is application of heat involved so there is a slight chance of the user developing redness overtime but it is also very temporary.

What is the procedure?

Following is a step by step guide of how this procedure takes place.

  1. First is the complete cleaning of the face, where any debris from the skin is completely removed.
  2. Next, there is the application of a numbing cream on the skin. The purpose of this is to remove any or all effects of the heating which can cause slight discomfort.
  3. There is an application on the skin of a grid that will mark out where the procedure is to be applied. Without this grid, a lot of discrepancies can be caused.
  4. The Thermage FLX is applied over the marked areas and spots.
  5. Then the machine is adjusted according to the skin type and requirement level so that the heat level is not only maintained but the most effective.
  6. The procedure is adjusted between three levels of heating, cooling and vibrating.
  7. After the fixed treatment, the patient is sent home and allowed to continue with their daily routines.

It is clear from the discussion that this treatment gives the user a well-defined look that is more attractive, lifted, defined and contoured. Not only this, but it boosts the growth of that collagen that is vital for the rejuvenation of the skin. The treatment only lasts between 30 to 90 minutes on an average depending on the skin type. And to maintain this look on average, only one touch up is required.

Getting Face Slimming Procedures Done in Singapore

Everyone has different face shape and face sizes, and how one looks depend upon the facial feature he or she has. Some people has round face whereas others are born with slim face. In this world of technology, it is now possible to get slim face through different face slimming treatments.

Home Remedies for getting slim face

The best possible solution is application of home remedy for getting slim face in Singapore. It is possible with the help of makeover, contouring that involves non-surgical methods.  These procedures are temporary in nature which doesn’t incorporate any surgical method or so.

About face slimming treatments

The proper treatment for getting face slim is possible through surgical procedures which involves face lifting, tightening and reduction of face fats. The end results are v shape face which is slim and rejuvenated.

Introducing Non-Invasive Treatments for Face Slimming

The non-invasive facial treatments today involve more than face fat reduction. Now with new methods, one can get tightening and lifting face, fat removing, tissues rejuvenating as well as facial augmentation. It is not about using the same methods for all, rather it depends upon requirements of every client. In Singapore though, the most affordable and in demand treatment involves no use of knife, rather use of natural as well as long lasting methods for best results. The most commonly treatments being used in Singapore are as follow:

Face slimming through Botox

Botox treatment which involves injection in the jaw is said to be non-surgical method which is used for regaining the youthful as well as healthy face. Normally, when jaws over work like clench as well as chew, it leads to overdevelopment and thus botox tends to regain the square shape again. With the injection, not only nerves are blocked, jaw muscles are also relaxed which makes them smaller and slimmer.

Ultraformer HIFU

It is yet another non-surgical method which is used for face slimming as well as face contouring. It tends to reduce fat in the cheeks as well as double chin area and also boost collagen. It reduces double chin, slim face leading to V shape, skin lifting as well as the overall tone of the skin is also improved. In order to get desired results like face slimming as well as fat melting, repeated sessions of HIFU are needed. It may be due to difference in the overall quantity of fat on individual face.

Introducing Filler Injections

Normally when the skin around the chin hangs down, it makes it look very fat. When the face is V-Shaped, the overall face looks slim. It is true that people in Singapore are so much concerned with their face and jaw line and want to look slim in whatever way they can. Thus, to get the desired result of V-shape, the concept of filler is most successful. Normally filler involves injecting soft gels within the skin so proper jaw line is formed and face gains more volume. Also around the targeted areas, it is better to get injections which get the V-shape via facial augmentation. Chin will become sharp, thinner and overall face will look slimmer

These methods are most commonly used in the Singapore for face slimming purposes. Since every face is different and will require different treatment, thus some may require surgical methods whereas others may become slimmer through simple method.

Thomas Jefferson: born April 13, 1743

Let me describe to you a man, not yet forty, tall and with a mild and pleasing countenance…An American, who without ever having quitted his own country, is at once a musician, skilled in drawing; a geometrician, an astronomer, a natural philosopher, legislator, and statesmen…Sometimes natural philosophy, at others politicks or the arts were the topicks of our conversation, for no object had escaped Mr. Jefferson; and it seemed as if from his youth he had placed his mind, as he has done his house, on an elevated situation, from which he might contemplate the universe.

Description of a visit to Thomas Jefferson at Monticello in 1782 from Travels in North-America, in the Years 1780, 1781, and 1782 by the Marquis de Chastellux.

Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at Shadwell in Albemarle County, Virginia. A member of the Continental Congress, he requested that only three of his many accomplishments be noted on his tomb at Monticello: Author of the Declaration of American Independence; Author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom; And Father of the University of Virginia.

A man of many conflicts.

While he lived a simple lifestyle, greeting guests in homespun clothes and slippers, it is reported that his wine bill upon leaving the presidency was $10,000. He certainly knew how to live well. He believed in a “wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another,” but that otherwise left them free to regulate their own affairs. In an effort to minimize the influence of the central government, he reduced the number of government employees, slashed army enrollments, and cut the national debt.

Jefferson had to deal with the political war waged between his Republican Party and the Federalists. There were many occasions where his personal philosophy contradicted his professional actions. The battles were focused on the nation’s judiciary branch. The landmark ruling in Marbury v. Madison, which established the independent power of the Supreme Court, was handed down during Jefferson’s presidency.

Of his relationship with the slave Sally Hemmings, many still debate today.  Although he denied the affair, current DNA evidence supports sexual relationships between the two and was indeed fathered two of her children.  While he fought for the prohibition of slavery in new American territories, he never freed his own slaves. Some historians argue that he felt it was for their own safety and they were better off at Monticello. However, one still cannot overlook the sacred words “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,” in light of his ambivalence toward slavery.

Time has passed and two hundred thirty years later I wonder…Are these truths self-evident? It’s rhetorical, in my view yes. However, the more important question is when? When will we as humanity act, that all men are truly created equal?

Photos and other material from the Library of Congress. Check it out, it’s your library.

Open Trackbacks and featured artist Steve Hanks

Welcome everyone to the Thursday weekly Open Trackback Alliance. Trackback to this article while including a link to same in your article, and it will appear below, right before your very eyes. Call it cyber magic if you will…it just works. And if your blogging software doesn’t want to play nice with trackbacking, just use this handy-dandy Wizbang Standalone Trackback Pinger.

And for your viewing pleasure here are a couple of watercolors by featured artist Steve Hanks. His beautiful studies of the female form is attracting national attention. An intimate portrait of thoughtful serenity and subtle sensuousness.

“A healing process can be a lengthy one, says Steve Hanks.” This is, in fact, the final painting in a series of three that have used the ascent of the staircase to track this woman’s passage. By reaching the landing at the top, she has completed her growing process and is ready to move on. This staircase reminds us to take things in life one step at a time, that a promise of reward and satisfaction—the top of the staircase—and a new view of the world around you, is a situation you can help create for yourself.

In my paintings, when there’s a sidewalk or shoreline going off into the distance, I sometimes use this area to represent people in the subject’s mind. You may notice that in A New Beginning that there are no people down the sidewalk, and that the background is left blank; the woman has visualized an open road in her future. Additionally, I used a different model for this painting than I did in the first two, to further illustrate the metamorphosis: you are not the same person at the top of the staircase that you were at the bottom.

Where are you on your Staircase?

Have a Tasty and Wholesome Morning meal

A good nutritious lunch is defeated by nothing. It’s very important to begin your day on a full belly. Going hungry has several disadvantages. Having an empty belly may do more than simply stop you cranky. If that you do not focus on your diet requirements then you can certainly fall ill effortlessly. You’ve to understand how much of what our system needs. Unlike our ancestors, we are in possession of a correct understanding of our bodies. There’s a large amount of technology concerned when it comes to keeping our health. Balancing out the food we eat is of extreme importance. We ought to not need inadequate of one kind of food. That doesn’t mean we are able to have too much of everything as well. Even though every individual includes a distinctive human body, our nutrition requirements are relatively same. The foods we eat, pretty much, influence most of us likewise. So we have to have a concept of what our bodies need to remain healthy. After having substantial understanding of our nutritional requirements we are able to look after them. Yet another element is spreading out the food consumption timetable. One can’t eat all his human body needs in one move. He’s to maintain his human body provided with diet time round. Lots of people think that you ought to consume every few hours. Yet the general pattern is to have four normal meals a day. No one has got the time for you to keep eating. Actually four meals a day might be overlooked by some. Regardless of how busy you’re, it’s recommended to at the very least have your morning meal. Kellogg’s cereal deals make morning meal fast, healthier and inexpensive as well. Morning meal is the dinner we’ve following a long crack. Therefore the food we eat is extremely important for our bodies. Our bodies need all of the diet it gets in the day. For more reasons than one, morning meal is considered the most significant food of the morning. So we must be cautious by what we’ve for lunch. The food we eat must have the correct mixture of vitamins. From supplements to proteins, your dinner must have everything. Morning meal provides you with the power all day long you have to work. So every aspect needs to be looked after while preparing lunch. There are lots of foods which may be suggested for morning meal. Yet few individuals have the time for you to eat everything. We are limited by The run to get to work of the time for you to have a good elaborate lunch. Breakfast cereals offer us the rapidly wholesome lunch we want. Because all you have to to do is have a bowl and blend cereal to milk, it barely takes time for you to make your dinner. The first breakfast cereal was cornflakes. Because cornflakes are dull it wasn’t loved by many people. The new delicious number of breakfast cereals makes lunch a pleasure. You’re certain to find your preferred taste one of the thousands available. Deals could make your morning meal inexpensive as well. Deals for Kellogg’s cereals are common because the manufacturer has been creating, the most stylish breakfast cereals for years.

Change your budget handling strategy with Kellogg’s Utah and Kellogg’s cereal coupons.

The History Behind The Knife And Fork – Why Is Cutlery So Called And Why Was The Fork The Work Of The Devil?

No matter where you go to eat there will be a set of cutlery for you to use (excepting, of course, Chinese restaurants where you can obtain cutlery rather than chopsticks if you wish). The cutlery is always the same, one knife and one fork for every course, or a spoon for soup. The designs may vary but the tools remain the same. There has been some evolution in recent times though, to accommodate our desire for fast food and food on the run, which has led to the development of the spork, a half spoon and half fork creation designed especially for one-handed eating. But where did the use of such eating implements come from, who decided that these were the tools that we should eat with?

Humble Beginnings

We need to go back to the seventeenth century to see the first use of the fork at the dining table, making it something of a recent addition to the cutlery drawer. But journey back around three hundred thousand years and you will discover that our ancestors were even then using crude knives to the first butcher and then carve the meat for their meals. Though these were very rough and formed from the stone they are the basis for the tools that we use today. When the Iron Age arrived the knives were refined, made stronger and sharper, their shape changed and became something that we would recognize today as a knife. Iron was the metal of choice for centuries, right up until the development of stainless steel in the nineteenth century.

Why Cutlery?

The men who crafted the iron knives of old were known as cutlers. This name is a derivative of the Middle English ‘cutellerie’ which is itself derived from a word in old French which can be traced back to the original Latin ‘cutellus’ which translates as the knife. So you see not only has the design of the implement changed very little over centuries the name also remains true to its roots. The introduction of the fork posed something of a challenge to the masses, it was seen as something revolutionary, the work of the devil, after all, it was pronged just like the devil’s own fork. It took a long time for it to be accepted and used by the population of Europe; from its early development in the eleventh century, it wasn’t until the seventeenth century that it was accepted for popular use.